Posted by John DeFazio on December 20, 2003 at 08:00:24:
In Reply to: Re: Why has hi-tech architecture made? posted by Mike Russo on December 19, 2003 at 11:22:44:
High Tech traces its roots the late 18th Century and the advent Industrial Age, and of new construction technologies that emerged then, i.e. structural iron, then steal, the reintroduction of concrete and the use of metal reinforcing systems and the use of machines and modern (mathematical) engineering in construction process. High Tech architects point to 18th and 19th Century engineered bridges and industrial structures as the precursors to a new, Modern Architecture. Most would site the Paxton's' Crystal Palace in London, 1953, as when such an industrial structure was viewed, not as just engineered objects but as a work of Architecture, a work of Art.
This new way of thinking saw the use of modern Technology similar that of the principals of Gothic Architecture, (but with no imitative form or ornament), and as the expression on the Modern Age.
A lot of experimentation in continued through the 19th and into the 20th Century, both in technological developments and Symbolic representation. Notably here, Brehen, Gropius, Hans Meyer. The impact of Wright Brothers "Flyer", and Ford's Assembly Line production can not go overestimated when thinking about this time.
A visionary period occurred just before and after WW I, with work of the Italian Futurist Sant' Eilia, and The Russian Constructivists architects immediately following the Soviet Revolution, most notably El Lissitzky, Leonidov, and Melnikov. In the late 1920's and the 30's, Le Corbusier theorized and wrote about Engineers Aesthetic as the model for the age. At this same time industrial design it self emerged as an art-in-self and began to influence architecture. Buckminster Fuller at this time developed the Dymaxion House as a complete engineered and industrially made work of architecture, that was to be a model for a new way of thinking about how we could and should live. Bucky's work culminated later, after WWII in the Geodesic dome.
Construction came to a halt with WW II, but technology leaped forward to serve the war machine- in the field of new materials, production (in scale), and advanced engineering in aircraft and machines.
After the war all these things were folded into the main stream Modernist theory and new works, by Eero Saarinen and Charles and Ray Eames reflect this new sensibility .
In the 1959s James Stirling's Engineering Building in Leicester looks back to heroic/symbolic us of technology of the Russian Constructivist. He is one group of architects that in the 1960's that will become the core of the contemporary High Tech (a term that started being used in the 1970's), Peter Cook, Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers, and Sir Norman Froster. In 1972-76, the Center Pompidou by Rogers and Piano & Fosters' Hongkong and Shanghai Bank 1979-86, are the high watermarks of this most formative period.
It is all much more complex than this, with many many more players.
But this will give you a general arch, for you to start your investigation.
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